Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Haydn and Mozart - 1997 Words

Between the years 1782 and 1785, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote six string quartets which were dedicated to his friend and fellow composer, Joseph Haydn. These quartets, known as the Haydn Quartets, were among Mozarts first six masterpieces in the medium (Keller, 64). In composing these works, Mozart was inspired by Haydns recently published Opus 33, which is also a set of six string quartets. When Haydn wrote his Opus 33 in 1781, it was the first time he had written for the string quartet in a period of ten years. With the six pieces of Opus 33, Haydn established a style of chamber music that he described as being in an entirely new, very special manner (Pauly, 45). At the same time, it had also been nearly 10 years since†¦show more content†¦The royalty of the time was especially interested in having small instrumental groups play at their social gatherings and official events. The music of these small groups was known as chamber music, because it was usually meant to be performed in a royal patrons private chambers (Rosenstiel, 547). In order to suit the tastes of the aristocracy, this type of music was generally light and elegant. Both Mozart and Haydn were masters of the classical style. Haydn, born 24 years before Mozart, was an innovator in the development of the style. Mozart followed Haydns lead and went even further by becoming a true master of classical forms. Mozarts works also show a strong sense of emotion, which adds to their power. Haydn wrote more than 80 string quartets during his long career. By the early 1770s, the four-movement format was standardized in Haydns quartets (548). After an exciting first movement in sonata-allegro form, Haydn often used a minuet for the second movement. The third movement was usually a slow piece and the fourth movement was usually another up-tempo form like the first movement. This order of movements differed from the traditional order, in which the second movement was a slow piece and the third movement was a minuet. By changing the order, Haydn expressed an element of the classical style, because the four movements are balanced in terms of their expressive weight (Rosen, 280).Show MoreRelatedThe Works Of Haydn And Mozart940 Words   |  4 PagesHaydn and Mozart are often recognised as the two composers who were responsible for bringing Viennese Classicism to its greatest height. In the public eye, these two great composers could not be more different, whether it is i n terms of their characters or values. This essay sets out to explore the similarities and differences in the early lives of these two gifted individuals, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and (Franz) Joseph Haydn, through their backgrounds and music education. Mozart, who was bornRead MoreMozart and Haydn Essay1209 Words   |  5 PagesTwo of historys greatest figures in the development of Classical style music during the eighteenth century were Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn. Both men worked together and were very close friends while living in Vienna. Between the two, Joseph Hayden and Amadeus Mozart devoted much of their music for composing symphonies, minuets, librettos, sonatas, concertos, masses, oratorios and operas. While both men achieved popularity and status during their time, they also discovered that successRead MoreEssay on The keyboard sonatas of Haydn and Mozart1066 Words   |  5 Pages I. Haydn nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Haydn has a special preference for writing music in a bundle of six. Each of the six pieces has its individuality while sharing many common features at the same time. Haydn’s solo keyboard sonatas show striking diversity in type and style. They often could be categorized by their style periods and each of them reflects a corresponding social background. Sonatas composed from 1773 to 1784 were intended as â€Å"public† works from theRead MoreThe History And Transitions Of Music933 Words   |  4 Pagestransitions of music has had many talented persons that have influenced music but none are so well known as Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. All three of these great composers performed during the Classic period and it would act as the base of classic music for the next one hundred and fifty, to two hundred years. The names of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven are so well known that people who have little to no knowledge of music will recognize their names. The urbanRead MoreThe Golden Age Of Chamber Music1300 Words   |  6 PagesFranz Joseph Haydn Down the history of music, the classical era was known as the golden age of chamber music. This chamber style of music was largely established by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. Joseph Haydn was one of the most prolific composers amongst the first Viennese schools (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven), in the classical era. Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, a little Austrian village not far from Hainburg in the yearRead MoreMozart And Beethoven s Musical Origins1651 Words   |  7 PagesHaydn began his musical career as a choirboy in Vienna up until the age of 17. Mozart and Beethoven’s musical origins are similar, both coming from families with musical backgrounds. Mozart’s father taught him and his sister before taking them to tour throughout Europe. Beethoven also studied with his father before receiving his study abroad opportunity in Vienna in 1792. After serving as a choirboy, Haydn found himself in need of a means to make a living. He was barely able to support himselfRead MoreEssay on The Great Classics of the Classical Period505 Words   |  3 PagesBaroque period, the Classical period is one of the greatest musical eras in history. The style flowed directly off of its Baroque predecessors, smooth, but differing in the tempo. Many of the greatest composers emanated from the Classical era, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven among them. This time period transformed the course of not just musical history, but that of the entire modern western world. Johann Sebastian Bach was the Alpha and the Omega of the Baroque period. Classical music, as we referRead MoreThe Austrian Composer : Franz Of The Formal And Structural Principles Of Classical Style1259 Words   |  6 PagesThe Austrian composer Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) was arguably the founder and developer of the formal and structural principles of classical style. His work included hundreds of symphonies, string quartets, and instrumental sonatas. Haydn was an innovator and many composers after him, modeled his style. FOUNDATIONS On March 31, 1732, Franz Joseph Haydn was born in the charming village of Rohrau, Lower Austria which is on the Hungarian border. Joseph, called Sepperl by his German parents, wasRead MoreFranz Joseph Haydn : The Founder And Developer Of The Formal And Structural Principles Of Classical Style1268 Words   |  6 PagesThe 18th Century composer, Franz Joseph Haydn, was arguably the founder and developer of the formal and structural principles of classical style. His work included hundreds of symphonies, string quartets, and instrumental sonatas. Haydn’s innovation and style created a model for many composers after him. FOUNDATIONS On March 31, 1732, Franz Joseph Haydn was born in the charming village of Rohrau, Lower Austria which is on the Hungarian border. Joseph, called Sepperl by his German parents, was bornRead MoreThe Twilight Of His Career Essay1486 Words   |  6 PagesIn the twilight of his career, Mozart was approached by a stranger with the means to commission him for the composition of a Requiem, one of the important pieces of a Catholic Mass. Despite his current work and declining health, he accepted and began to compose the work until his untimely death on December 5th, 1791. Despite his efforts, he was unable to complete his work and it eventually was finished by a recommended composer. While many would say that like the piece of work, this solely represents

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Tension Between Faith and Reason Essay - 1643 Words

Entering the ancient discussion about the tension between faith and reason is not an easy task. Of course, when engaging in tensions it is always important to define terms. For the sake of consistency I will refer to Oxford’s online dictionary for both the definition of faith, as well as reason. Faith is â€Å"complete trust or confidence in someone or something.† Reason is â€Å"a cause, explanation, or justification for an action or event.† These are the definitions that will be used throughout this paper. From the above definitions, the conclusion that is logically deduced is that reason precedes faith. The common conception seems to be that faith can be unreasonable. Therefore, faith cannot precede reason. It is important to make a†¦show more content†¦He is a philosophical theologian who discussed this issue in quite a bit of length. Aquinas believed that even though faith could obtain truth that was beyond reason, one could still achieve incompl ete truths using reason devoid of faith. Though this is more towards a companionable view of faith and reason, there is still an implication of having to start with reason. Aquinas also believed that one’s faith could assist one’s reason. However, this faith could not be conceived outside of an explanation (reason), therefore, reason preceding faith is what assists reason. In other words, faith understood as complete confidence helps reason inasmuch as reason eventually assists itself. A forerunner to Aquinas was a fellow by the name Peter Lombard. He taught that the unbeliever could know truth through the gift of reason, even truths regarding the Holy Trinity. This is significant because this teaching annihilates the need for faith in order to find truth. Though I’m sure Lombard would agree with Aquinas concerning that truth apart from faith would be incomplete, Lombard has shown that even truths associated with religious practiced are not beyond reason. On that note, it would be helpful to explore the concept of rationality. Rational means â€Å"based on or in accordance with reason or logic.† A rational human will not be without reason. When it comes to basis, the said human’s faith seems to be irrelevant.Show MoreRelatedThe Reflection Of Faith And Faith954 Words   |  4 Pagesbe faith. The stereotypical faith is founded on the idea of believing without seeing. However, that philosophy leads to a weak and vulnerable faith. Doubt creeps into all aspects of life and ultimately changes the very core life. Changing one element in an ecosystem can directly impact all elements of life connected to the effected one. The naturally occurring doubt has the power to potentially alter an entire belief system. Thus leading to doubt being able to form a stronger faith. For faith isRead MoreArgo Essay865 Words   |  4 PagesThe CIA agent named Tony Mendez snuck into Iran to bring back six American diplomats who were hiding with a Canadian household. In the Movie Argo, the director, Ben Affleck showed the tension between the U.S and Iran by using memory, reason, emotion and faith by this time. The director showed the strain between the U.S and Iran by using memory, because the movie itself is based on a true incident which happened in 1979. In 1979, the American embassy in Iran was invaded by Iranian revolutionariesRead MoreFaith and Religion in Jane Eyre by Charlote Brontà « Essay examples583 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout Jane Eyre, the characters struggle to live out and develop their faiths, according both to God’s will and their own. In Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, faith and religion are displayed in different forms through the characters of Helen Burns, St. John, and Jane Eyre. Faith in Christ is the stronghold for Helen Burns. She considers living to the glory of God the purpose of her life. Her troubles and sorrows do not sway her faith, for she declares it her â€Å"duty to bear it† (56). For Helen, living aRead MoreThe practises, beliefs and values of Christianity and Islam have an impact on Australia society;1600 Words   |  7 Pages The practises, beliefs and values of Christianity and Islam have an impact on Australia society; however, the media exploits the perceived tension between the two groups which has led to discrimination and violence. Over many years the way of which an individual lives their life has been shown to be affected by the religion of which they follow. This affects the way of life throughout the community surrounding these people, as well as having an impact on the social issues throughout this particularRead MoreRadical Views Of The Iranian Constitution1458 Words   |  6 Pagesconstitution of the French Fifth Republic, retaining the President and Prime Minister for the Executive branch, instantly creating tension between the two. â€Å"Tension†¦ never abated. In fact, it was one of the reasons for the amendment of the Constitution and abolition of the office of the Prime Minister in 1989†. This abolition however created another problem: tension between the President, and the clerically selected leader (rahbar) of the Islamic Republic, also known as the supreme Jurist (faqih). ThisRead MoreA Spiritual Perspective On Theological Inquiry Essay1573 Words   |  7 PagesThis relationship also exists between spirituality and self-reflexivity, promoting an examined life which connects to a larger moral vision that extends beyond the self into the community. Spirituality, theological inquiry, and self-reflexivity interact as a paradox of religious identity rooted in one’s being while also being critically open, fair-minded, and participatory in dialogue. Karl Rahner’s â€Å"The Hearer of the Message† delineates the inherent connectivity between academic and spiritual lifeRead More`` That s Humanism !, By Stephen Fry1256 Words   |  6 Pagesthe use of evidence and science?† (Fry, â€Å"That’s Humanism!†). In response to ‘blind faith,’ the â€Å"scientific creationists substitute a materialist definition o f faith demanding that science confirm scripture and scripture confirm science, while simultaneously attacking the materialism of scientific explanation†(Aliff 2005). Faith without science is â€Å"blind† (Regier 2010). Regier stated, â€Å"There is a delicate balance between science and religion, without one the other will produce wrong answers or not produceRead MoreHamlet- Shakespeare dramatises the tension between Passion and Reason1413 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿SHAKESPEARE DRAMATISES THE TENSION BETWEEN PASSION AND REASON IN HAMLET TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THIS VIEW SUPPORT YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PLAY Acts of passion and acts of reason can be differentiated by a sense of underlying tension, Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ published in 1601 explores these universal ideologies by dramatizing this underlying tension. ‘Hamlet’ presents challenging representations of the traditional values of passion and reason through their varying forms. The representation of theseRead MoreThe Most Pragmatic And Realistic Approach887 Words   |  4 Pagesdialectical tensions involved in communicating with the Body of Christ along with the nature of love and the importance of relationships within the Body of Christ. There are many points of tension within the Body of Christ due to imperfect people and their inability to communicate love perfectly. People are supposed to practice love and with practice comes mistakes. Earth’s purpose is to act as an education on for us all to ask ourselves â€Å"how better can we love† (Drummond, 36). Specifically, tensions ariseRead MoreSpiritual Lessons of Muslim Revolutionists Imam Ali and Jalal al-din Rumi 1627 Words   |  7 Pagesdesign much like these oral traditions, but a careful analysis of their work will depict the true depth of their teachings. Through their teachings, these two men are able to clearly show the distinction between spirituality as their lessons greatly depend on the individual recognizing that faith is better known as the complete trust in something even if there is a lack of evidence for that trust and that spirituality is more so more so the process of introspection or the examination of one’s own

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Clinical Psychology and Gerontology Aging Studies

Question: Discuss about theClinical Psychology and Gerontology for Aging Studies. Answer: Introduction The advertisement shows the anti-wrinkle products that claim to reduce the wrinkles and fine lines in less than sixty minutes. The target audience is the aged women of 45-65 years from middle-aged to older women who wants to reverse the signs of ageing. The anti-wrinkle products target the women who are extending their twenties and past middle age. These anti-wrinkles products not only promote to reverse the early signs of ageing but also prevent the characteristics of ageing before the ageing process naturally sets in. These advertisements have a psychological impact on the women. It aims to exploit the insecurities in the target audience. It has an effect on the women who feels that they are getting aged and their looks are getting hampered due to the ageing process (Cruikshank, 2013). They feel that the ageing process has already begun and it will continue in a rapid way. Moreover, these anti-wrinkle advertisements feature famous models and actresses and it is also a reason for th e women to get attracted by these anti-wrinkle products. These advertisements use bold words and phrases like age defying, lifting, and plumping that affects the target audience quickly and effectively. The target audience feels that happiness is associated with appearance and beauty is of paramount importance. It has a very bad impact on the women promoting injustice, inequality, contradictions and irrationalities prevailing in the society (Rudman, 2015). It also conveys the message that beauty is associated with the appearance of youth. These anti-wrinkle advertisements have an overall bad impact on the target audience filling them with fear and insecurities in the women. People stereotype elderly people based on age that is featured in these anti-wrinkle advertisements. These advertisements show stereotype that features the aged women through a lens of diminished beauty, value and reflects and reinforces the societys attitude towards getting old (Brooks, Bichard Craig, 2016). It shows a distorted view of ageing in the women and emphasizes the burden of the ageing population. The negative stereotypes that portray the older women who are ignored and dissatisfied with the ageing process are widely used in these advertisements. It portrays the negative stereotypes about ageism in the society and standard anti-ageing messages that are impossible for these products to attain. The negative images portray negative stereotypes more deeply and entrench confirmed beliefs about the ageing process. People believe in the negative effects of the ageing and starts feeling bad about getting old. It also reflects the various stereotypes of how the society treats the older generation. It shows media illiteracy and negative stereotypes about the old aged people. The anti-ageing products reflect the ageism that depicts stereotype and discrimination in the society based on the single trait of old age. The stereotype and devaluing of the elderly people have significant negative impact on the aged population affecting their behavior, self-esteem and psychological well-being (Hearn Wray, 2015). The advertisements show the negative stereotype that the old age women are not beautiful and having youthful skin is the only way to look beautiful and stay happy. It also has positive stereotypes that defying ageing is the way to age successfully, however, negative stereotypes have more impact that these advertisements displays. The anti-ageing advertisements show the cultural stereotypes that depict the fair women with a flawless and cosmopolitan image. The cultural reverence is depicted through the fair skin and it is regarded as the definition of beauty (Brown Knight, 2015). It creates a mindset that glorification of fair, anti-wrinkle skin is the way to become beautiful and promote happiness. It also creates a color bias that perpetuates prejudice and hatred that are deep-seated in the mind of the viewers. For example, some countries have diverse culture; however, the minorities or ethnic groups are under presented in these advertisements. They only feature fair and flawless skin and does not reflect the actual changing demographics of the society. Ageing is a natural process that occurs in men and women both. However, the old aged women are stereotyped in the advertisements reflecting insecurity in them (Ylnne, 2015). The discoloration and removal of fine lines in the skin using simulated imagery used in the advertisements reflect that fair and flawless skin is the only way to look beautiful. The wrinkles and fine lines shown in the advertisements depicts that they are not beautiful and should be avoided by the old aged women to look beautiful. The wrinkles and fine lines happen to appear during ageing and women are not the only one who has them. There are no anti-ageing advertisements that target men. The old women can look beautiful with wrinkles and it is a natural process that cannot be denied using anti-wrinkle products. While neglecting the negative impacts and cultural stereotypes, the anti-ageing advertisement has positive impact on the older population. They are in high demand among the women despite the advertisements. The before and after images that the dermitage product provides give a visual representation of the product's effectiveness (Phau, 2017). It is an effective process that demonstrates the efficacy of the dermitage product. The product can achieve its purpose by promoting positive feelings of pleasure and confidence and focus to boost self-esteem, joy, happiness and social acceptance among the target audience. It could also show the positive effects of the therapy in reducing wrinkles in less than sixty minutes without any side effects that would help to achieve the purpose of the product. The reduction of fine lines and wrinkles within an hour could have a great impact on the target audience. The advertisement could also promote women from the ethnic or diverse culture that would h elp the minorities to use this product and get benefitted (Kaur, Arumugam Yunus, 2013). Moreover, the advertisement could also show the organic and natural ingredients used in the product claiming no harmful effects on the skin. The product should display that it cannot delay, mask or prevent premature ageing and would provide temporary effects on ageing. The product should not claim to rejuvenate or cure the early signs of ageing and delay. They should provide subjective claim rather than an objective claim for the product. It should not have a physiological claim like the rejuvenation of the skin, natural cell renewal and stimulation, boost the natural skin structure and works by penetrating the skin. Therefore, by using these strategies, the advertisement can achieve its purpose without depicting negative age or cultural stereotype. References Brooks, M. E., Bichard, S., Craig, C. (2016). What's the Score?: A Content Analysis of Mature Adults in Super Bowl Commercials.Howard Journal of Communications,27(4), 347-366. Brown, A., Knight, T. (2015). Shifts in media images of women appearance and social status from 1960 to 2010: A content analysis of beauty advertisements in two Australian magazines.Journal of aging studies,35, 74-83. Cruikshank, M. (2013).Learning to be old: Gender, culture, and aging. Rowman Littlefield. Hearn, J., Wray, S. (2015). Gender. Implications of a contested area.Twigg, Julia; Wendy Martin (Hg.) Routledge Handbook of Cultural Gerontology. London: Routledge, 201-209. Kaur, K., Arumugam, N., Yunus, N. M. (2013). Beauty product advertisements: A critical discourse analysis.Asian social science,9(3), 61. Phau, I. (2017). Volume 29, Issue 1 Editorial-2017.Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics,29(1). Rudman, D. L. (2015). Embodying positive aging and neoliberal rationality: Talking about the aging body within narratives of retirement.Journal of aging studies,34, 10-20. Ylnne, V. (2015). Representations of ageing in the media.Routledge Handbook of Cultural Gerontology, 369-376.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Positive Effects Of Gene Altering Essays - Biology,

Positive Effects Of Gene Altering The Positive Effects of Gene Altering Since the beginning of the human race, we have been looking. We have been looking for ways to make our lives healthier, more comfortable, and happier. In the beginning it was simple rocks, plants, and fires. As our technology advanced so did the comfort of our lives. The wheel, the cure to the plaque, and who can forget the remote control, were all tools that made it possible to improve the quality of life. What tool lies ahead in the future to promote our well being and happiness? Genetic engineering is that tool. Every living thing is made up of genes, and with the capability of altering these genes, the possibilities are endless. Everything from better quality produce to the prevention of cancer is a possibility with genetic engineering, and scientists are just now beginning to understand the complex gene patterns. If you can imagine a world free of diabetes, or male pattern baldness, and genetics has a major role. Genetic engineers might someday have the capabilities to remove th ese genes or even clone wanted genes, and in the end allowing us to live the healthy, comfortable, happier lives we seek. The numbers of positive outcomes from genetic engineering are inconceivable. Genetic engineering will lead to healthier, more comfortable, and better lives. Genetic engineering will improve every day produce and goods. For producers involved with living organisms as their products, genes play a major role in the quality of their products and amount of profit. If a farmer's cows are not as lean, or their corn is diseased, then the demand for their product is going to be less than the competition. That is where genetics comes in. It is possible, by altering certain genes, to create a leaner cow, or a disease resistant stalk of corn, and it is this fact that makes genetic engineering invaluable to the every day farmer. If their cattle is leaner, or their chickens are engineered to lay two eggs instead of one, then there is going to be a greater profit earned by the farmers, and a better quality of product. In the near future there may be bacon that is relatively fat free, or a chicken breast with twice the meat. By selecting the wanted genes and removing the unwanted, the producer can improve it product that it sells to the consumer, and th e spectrum is not just restricted to food. Softer cloths, sturdier wood, hardier trees and shrubs, and slower growing, greener grass are all possibilities. These improved products will impact everyone, and will be everywhere. The impact is hazy, but the effect is clear; they will improve not only the profit of the producer, but also the lives of the consumer. Genetic altering will be a powerful tool against disease, and disabilities. Every year millions of people die from a variety of diseases and disabilities that are passed down by genes. Cancer is one example of a disease that has been linked to genes and heredity. Many patients have a family history involving some type of cancer in the past. With the introduction of genetic engineering, there is a good chance that scientists will be able to locate genes that are prone to cancer and alter them so that the chance of getting cancer is greatly reduced. Cancer is not the only disease that this could be applied to either. Almost any disease, disorder, or disability has a future in genetic engineering. Another example is Down's syndrome, a syndrome that is passed down through generations by a mutated gene, and causes mental impairment. Imagine if someday that mutated gene could be removed from a family's future, allowing their kids to lead normal lives. There is no doubt that it would improv e the quality of life for these kids who, then, would be normal healthy children. Just the same, blindness, diabetes, dwarfism, heart valve deformities, Alzheimer's and many more conditions can be avoided or even eliminated by the use of genetic engineering. The uses of genetic altering in the medical field are exciting as well as numerous, and it will no doubt change the way we look at our health and the health of

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

The United States Athletic Footwear Market

The United States Athletic Footwear Market University of Bradford - BSc (Hons) Business and Management Studies Foundations of Marketing MAN0105M - Level 1 Intakes 52-55Page 0 of 23Table of ContentsExecutive Summary ....................................................................................................... 11. The US Athletic Footwear Market ............................................................................. 22. Market Segmentation ................................................................................................. 43. Segment Targeting ..................................................................................................... 84. Market Positioning (4Ps) ......................................................................................... 114.1 Product ........................................................................................................... 114.2 Promotion....................................................................................................... 13 4.3 Price ............................................................................................................... 154.4 Place ............................................................................................................... 175. Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 186. Reference list............................................................................................................ 19Textbook............................................................................................................... 19Website ................................................................................................................. 197. Bibliography............................................................................................................. 22University of Bradford - BSc (Hons) Business and Management Studies Foundations of Marketing MAN0105M - Level 1 Intakes 52-55Page 1 of 23Executive SummaryThis piece of marketing research is commissioned to evaluate and examine the athleticfootwear market why this market is lucrative and potentially profitable and creating a productthat would seem fitting and fruitful in the company's future as the focal point of our nextmarketing campaign.The research draws attention to the fact that the United States athletic footwear market hasshown reasonable growth in sales in the past few years (NPD Group, Inc., 2013) with thespecific of the children footwear market growing twelve percent between 2011 to 2012 (NPDGroup, Inc., 2013). Further investigation reveals that the children footwear market that wehave targeted is the ideal segment to target due to the enormous increase in US gross domesticproducts since 1950 (US Government Spending, 2013), parents can afford better needs, desireand luxury for their children. Moreover, children of generation Y and Z are very synchronisedwithin their social circle by the mea ns of social networking and media. The active user ofsuch social media, Facebook, has gained a four hundred percent increase in the past decade(Kissmetrics, 2013).Our research evaluate and concluded that it is important...Buffalo and Fort Erie Public Bridge Authority

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Factors that Lead to Hyperinflations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Factors that Lead to Hyperinflations - Essay Example To provide an empirical verification of hyperinflation phenomenon, a more focused study on the ravaging hyperinflation and its impacts on Zimbabwe are attempted in section 4. Some of the course correction that a country such as Zimbabwe requires to embark on to arrest its hyperinflation is presented in section 5, before section 6 concludes this essay. A number of economists have attempted to define inflation, in their own terminology. For professor Crowther, inflation is marked by declining value of money, and conversely the rising level of prices (197). Pigou observed that inflation occurs when money income expands more than proportionately to income earning activity (439). In general, inflation is associated with a state of abnormal increase in the quantity of money. Inflation is linked to the issue of too much currency in the economy (Hawtrey 60). For Coulborn, inflation is a monetary phenomenon where "too much money chases too few goods" (356). According to Keynes, inflation is caused by an excess of effective demand over supply (296). For Friedman, inflation is a process of steady and sustained increase in prices. Inflation, thus, is a monetary phenomenon characterized by high prices, and conversely falling values of money (17). Hyperinflation is a typical case of an extremely rapid growth in the general level of prices, las ting for a number of years. Although a rise in the general prices of more than 50 per cent is treated as hyperinflation, there is no well-defined threshold. All these definitions point to one basic point: When the quantity of money in circulation exceeds the total amount of goods and services in the economy, it results in extraordinary increase in prices which we define as hyperinflation. It may be noted that hyperinflation is also called a "runaway" or "galloping" inflation, where the quantum of money increases to an extent that its value declines to an incomprehensible level. Historically, hyperinflation has occurred in China, Greece, Taiwan, Austria, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Russia. In recent years, countries such as Chile, Argentina and Bolivia experienced hyperinflation. At present, hyperinflation in Zimbabwe is a great cause of concern for the economists as it continues to threaten the livelihood of its people. 3. Causes of Hyperinflation: 1According to Prof. Fisher, other things remaining constant, as the quantity of money in circulation increases, the price level also increases in the same proportion and the value of money decreases, correspondingly (45). 1In its rigid form, the quantity theory of money defends a strict proportionality between changes in the stock of money and the general level of prices. If M = stock of money in circulation, V = velocity, P = general price level, the theory states that the level of P depends on MV. Since V is assumed to be constant in the short-run, P and M are proportional to each other. Thus, if P represents the general price level, then 1/P captures the purchasing power of money. The implication is that when the stock of money increases, the value of money decreases, which reflects proportionately on the increase in general level of